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Saint Augustine, Northeast Florida
Going public with archaeology for outreach, assistance to local governments, and service to the citizens and state of Florida. Visit our website at: http://flpublicarchaeology.org/nerc/
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Archive for June 2012

Teachers' Takes: Project Archaeology Workshop 2012

If you've followed the blog for a year or more, you've heard plenty about us developing a supplement for Project Archaeology's Investigating Shelter curriculum. You may have seen the blog after we piloted the workshop last summer.

 If not, that's okay.  You can see the workshop in action here!

Though I'm brimming with excitement about our most recent PA workshop, it does look like we've said enough already.  So...why don't I let you hear it from the teachers? 

 Some comments addressed the way we administer the workshop:
FPAN Southwest's Annette Snapp teaches a lesson in this year's workshop

Others highlighted Ranger Emily Palmer's interpretive tour, a staple of the workshop:

As always, Emily leads a fascinating tour for those in attendance...

But this year we also heard from the site's principal investigator, Dr. James Davidson!

Still other feedback highlights the fantastic curriculum itself, developed and classroom tested by Project Archaeology:

Workshoppers have a blast classifying items from a doohickey kit.

...And how well Investigating Shelter meets educational standards:



But my favorites of them all touch on all of those points AND can't wait to put the lessons to use!

As you can see, we love getting feedback--we always want to know what we're doing that works and where we can improve.  But we also want to hear from you!  Let us know if you'd like us to conduct a Project Archaeology: Investigating Shelter workshop in your area!

"What Is It???" Wednesday: Name That Thumbnail!

We're about ready to launch our Timucuan Technology program which includes Kelley Weitzel's 10 new lesson plans on biotechnology (based on archaeology of the Timucuan Indians), website, and supporting teaching workshops.  I could plug again the fact that we have a FREE teacher workshop next Tuesday & Wednesday, but then you already knew that from last month's post....right?

Anyway, on to the contest!  For prizes!

See if you can guess which thumbnail goes with which lesson!  Graphic used in the thumbnail came out of each lesson but some may be harder to guess than others due to scale.


Match to Chapter List:

____0. Introduction—Who Were the Timucua?
____1.  Theodore de Bry’s Timucuan Engravings—Fact or Fiction?  
____2.  Pyrotechnology  
____3.  Tool-Making Technology  
____4.  Animal Technology    
____5.  Wild Plant Technology   
____6.  Agricultural Technology   
____7.  Building Technology  
____8.  Archaeological Technology   
____9.  Archaeology—Beyond Excavation    
____10.  History and the Timucua   

First 5 to play along get a Timucuan Technology tote bag.  First five correct guesses receive tote with book of lessons included (all 230 pages of it!).  

Text: Sarah Miller, FPAN staff
Images: used with permission in Timucuan Technology- d) Theodore Morris, B, F, H, I, J) Kelley Weitzel, others from Wikipedia

This week in FPAN

I was posting signs today for all we have going on this week and ran out of space!

Amber is out helping the Lighthouse with their summer camps this week.  The theme for June 18-22 is Amazing First Americans.  The line up for the rest of the summer also looks very promising for young heritage explorers.  For more information contact Brenda Swann or check out their website.

Next up, Wednesday begins the annual conference for the National Park Servicce's Network to Freedom.  Receptions kick off the three day event but the meat of the meeting are papers presented by scholars from around the world on Thursday and Friday.  How is FPAN involved?  We're facilitating a workshop Saturday for those teaching about slavery to elementary age students.  More specifically, we'll be talking about our partnership with Kingsley Plantation and new Project Archaeology resources available to educators.

It's not too late to register!  Check out the conference website for more information on registration.


Members of the Tolomato Cemetery Preservation Association are invited to a special evening event: torchlight tour and talk.  City Archaeologist Carl Halbirt will be giving a short talk on recent project that led to the discovery of 16th century human remains now laid to rest at the cemetery.  Not yet a member?  Never too late to join!  Membership forms will be available at the gate (from King Street head north on Cordova, cemetery is on your left before you reach Orange Street).  They are a fantastic group of dedicated historians, preservationists, archaeologists, and cemeterians.  Check out Tolomato Cemetery Times, their blog that features the spirit of TCPA.  I'm not just a fan...I'm also a member!

But what's that in the lower right hand side of our board?  It's a final plug for Timucuan Technology free teacher training workshop put on by author Kelley Weitzel and FPAN center staff at the GTM-NERR preserve.  Spots are still available, check our website to register and check out tomorrow's "What Is It???" Wednesday for more #TimuTech sneak peeks.

For more information on any of these events email northeast@flpublicarchaeology.org or drop by the center to pick up a flier!

The National Association for Interpretation: How to Become a Certified Guide

NAI Certified Interpretive Guides
Last month, eleven intrepid interpreter trainees embarked on a week of intense instruction, practice and evaluation.  Their goal was to become Certified Interpretive Guides.  The training toward certification was provided by the National Association for Interpretation (NAI) under contract with Normandeau Associates out of Gainesville.  The Florida Public Archaeology Network - Northeast Regional Center (FPAN-NE) and the Guana Tolomato Matanzas National Estuarine Research Reserve (GTM-NERR) helped with training logistics and provided the Guana Reserve training facility.

NAI is a 25 year old international professional association of about 5000 members in 30 countries.  It's mission is to inspire "leadership and excellence to advance natural and cultural interpretation as a profession".  It does this by providing training and networking opportunities for heritage interpreters.  Its certification program is one of its services designed to advance the work of the profession.  More than 9000 people have been certified to date.  NAI offers certification is a number of professional categories including Certified Interpretive Guides and Hosts, Certified Heritage Interpreters, and Certified Interpretive Planners, Trainers and Managers.   (Certified Interpretive Guide Training Workbook by Lisa Brochu and Tim Merriman Ph.D. NAI, 2010).  It's certifications are respected worldwide giving professional credentials to those who meet its standards.

Our eleven student interpreters were mostly folks from around Florida although one student traveled all the way from the Monongahela National Forest in West Virginia.  We had FPAN staff from four centers; Lighthouse, County, State Park and GTM-NERR staff; as well as one South Florida teacher.  We were a diverse and talented group with each individual contributing from his/her creative perspective.  Our coach/trainer, Pete Colverson from Normandeau Associates, an engaging man with a British accent, was an inspiring teacher and supportive coach. 

Classroom instruction


We had a wonderful mix of classroom instruction, collaborative study, and practical exercises. 

Test taking
We took a test, developed and gave a presentation and received a critique from students and our instructor.  The week was intense and a bit stressful.  Although we all had had some prior experience as interpreters, preparing and presenting in front of the instructor and a group of peers, was a bit daunting.  The presentations were fabulous with all of us entertained and learning something we didn't know before.  We made good friends, learned much and are all now, prospective Certified Interpretive Guides. Watch out heritage world, here we come! 

If you are interested in becoming a Certified Interpretive Guide, check out the NAI website at:  http://www.interpnet.com/.

"What Is It???" Wednesday: Rock On


This interesting artifact came up twice in conversation last week.  What is it and what is its significance in northeast Florida?

(hint, my headlights are reflecting off of it, if that helps for scale and material)

CRPT Spotlight: Documenting Site Boundaries and Ground Penetrating Radar

I recently received an e mail asking for public-friendly resources addressing why ground penetrating radar (GPR) is useful for documenting cemeteries.  It struck me as odd, because we've spent the last nine months conducting Cemetery Resource Protection Training (CRPT) workshops that, in part, discuss just that.  Despite all of that effort, and the fact that we've carried out GPR efforts in several cemeteries (even offered a symposium), we haven't ever really blogged about how it can be used to understand these sensitive sites.

St. Augustine Archaeology volunteer Nick McAuliffe helps conduct GPR survey at the Colonial Spanish Quarter.

To get to that, I'll need to back up a step.  In the CRPT workshop, we emphasize that one of the best ways to protect a cemetery is to record it--in the state of Florida, registering any site with the Florida Master Site File (FMSF) offers a layer of awareness and protection.  In order to add a cemetery to the FMSF, the cemetery name and site boundaries are required; other information is optional, including history, details about interments, and the condition in which it was found.

Florida Master Site File Historical Cemetery Form (front side)

Recording boundaries can be a little tricky though, particularly when dealing with an abandoned or historic cemetery.  Many are missing markers, not fenced in, and have little documentation.  In order to determine boundaries, we encourage people to use all of the resources at their disposal--oral histories, historic images including photographs, any existing documentation, and visual survey/observation.

One oral account claims that Civil War spy Francis Kirby was buried in St. Augustine's Huguenot Cemetery (above), where her headstone is; another asserts that she was interred in Palatka.  Using GPR, we found that someone is buried beneath her grave marker.  We cannot, however, say for certain that it is her.

This is where ground penetrating radar can be useful.  Working in conjunction with these other resources, GPR affords the opportunity to take a "look" into the ground and detect cemetery features, including possible burials.

Since 2009 we have worked with local cemetery stewards and archaeologists on public-friendly projects.  Some of those projects led us to investigate some issues that may arise in documentation and locating boundaries.  I've highlighted just a few examples to demonstrate a range of how GPR can be useful to cemetery stewards.

National Cemetery

Dade Monuments at St. Augustine's National Cemetery.  Photo courtesy of Paul Ramey.

At the National Cemetery we investigated the Dade Monuments, three coquina pyramids under which soldiers who fell in the Dade Massacre (Second Seminole War) were buried en masse.  We wanted to understand the nature of the mass interment: was this one large deposit denoted by the pyramids, or three separate vaults?

This GPR readout shows a space between the monuments.

We attempted to address this question by running the GPR along the southern edges of all three pyramids.  The result was fairly clear--we could see the surface-level footprints of the features (note the dark disturbances along the top of the image to the left).  They were separated by an area with no real disturbance to be seen.  Thus they appeared to be separate interments--a theory confirmed when our partner at the cemetery, Greg Smith, discovered a historic photo of the day the burials occurred.  That photo clearly depicts three separate vaults.  That supplementary evidence both confirms our interpretation and suggests the effectiveness of thorough documentary research.

Tolomato Cemetery

An exhaustive survey of the Tolomato Cemetery.  Image courtesy of Matthew Kear.

The Tolomato Cemetery had been thoroughly mapped prior to our involvement by Matthew Kear as part of his M.A. in Historic Preservation from Cornell University.  However, many questions remain.  Why are there so many open spaces there?  Was no one buried in these areas, or have their grave markers simply been lost over the years?   

Field results of GPR in the Tolomato Cemetery.  Trowels (circled in white) indicate GPR anomalies identified as potential burials.  Volunteers standing along the row indicate the same, as we eventually ran out of trowels!

Hyperbolas indicate anomalies beneath the ground surface. Some may be burials.

Again using 2D GPR, we detected a series of hyperbolas, upside-down U-shaped anomalies located at the depth that burials occur.  Some of the hyperbolas may indicate burials.

We attempt to document a fallen headstone using GPR.

Another of the questions we sought to answer at Tolomato followed that research quite naturally: if headstones have fallen and become covered over, can we locate them using GPR?  We tested this using a known entity: a headstone that had fallen but was visible on the ground surface.

Fallen headstone clearly indicated at ground surface.

 It took only one quick pass of the GPR to document a headstone lying flat on the ground.  Given that headstones obscured by overgrowth lie just beneath the ground surface, we can infer that they would exhibit a similar signature.

Huguenot Cemetery

The Huguenot Cemetery once featured a crushed-shell pathway.

At the Huguenot Cemetery we ran a few tests that were similar to those already detailed.  One new effort involved locating an historic pathway that used to run through the cemetery, complete with a roundabout-like feature near the front gates.  This pathway has long since been abandoned; passersby today see only with grassy terrain.  Using an historic aerial photograph depicting both the cemetery and the City Gates, we estimated where the "roundabout" part of the pathway would have been for our GPR testing.

Pathway marker clearly detected just below ground surface.

Like the Dade Monuments and the fallen headstone from our other cemeteries, this feature appeared clearly through a flat disturbance near the ground surface. 

 These are a few of the many types of cemetery investigations that can be addressed through use of thorough research supported by GPR.  It can be used on a variety of surfaces and can detect a variety of different features, particularly when in the hands of a skilled technician.

GPR is a fantastic tool, and offers some unique benefits:

1. It's non-destructive.  Even if you mess up, all you've done is create bad data--that can be a pain to fix, but you haven't disturbed any sensitive deposits below the ground surface.

2. It creates a permanent record as you investigate.  It stores data as you carry out the investigation--it can be seen and interpreted as you go (in the field) and put through software for more concrete results later.

3. As demonstrated above, it can locate a variety of features--liners, vaults, crypts--it can even be used to map root systems!

We use GPR as a tool for engaging the public--all ages can be involved!
4. Community involvement--this one's a biggie for us.  All of our projects have been designed to engage cemetery stewards and the interested public.  When we can engage new people in investigating sites, we have new partners to protect and care for them as well.  GPR is an interesting and easy way to get others involved.  Once the equipment is set up, it just requires the user to push a button, push, and steer.  And even if mistakes are made, it's non-destructive!

In addition to these affordances, there are some constraints to take into consideration when deciding whether to employ GPR:

1. It's expensive.  GPR equipment, along with software can cost tens of thousands of dollars.  Companies exist that do GPR surveys professionally, and they can be expensive as well, depending on the extent of planned investigation.  Some cemeteries, such as St. Michael's in Pensacola, have secured grant funding and worked with the University of West Florida to conduct GPR research.

2.  It's only as good as its interpretation.  The work we did in the field, while conducted under some training, needed a highly trained eye for solid interpretation.  Anyone operating the equipment can see hyperbolas and other disturbances, but accurate interpretation of the aggregate data requires fairly extensive training.

3.  It can create overly confident results.  Despite the need for extensive training, it's really easy to get excited in the field and decide that we're seeing what we hope is there.  This is particularly true when partners and members of the public are involved--we all want it to be clear, easy and definite. We have to be cautious about what we think we see, particularly in the preliminary phases.  Moreover:

4. We can't be positive of anything without ground-truthing.  GPR isn't perfect, and neither are its users.  I once excavated a 1x2 meter unit with nearly nothing in it because the GPR was thrown off by a modern aluminum can just beneath the ground surface.  According to the data, it looked like a burial.  It wasn't.  It was a beer can and a LOT of dirt.

One way to counteract uncertainty in GPR is to start with the known--for instance marked graves--to learn the "signature" of a burial.  Then you can move on to unmarked graves, which are likely to have the same kind of hyperbola.

GPR provides information about burials and other sensitive subsurface features without disturbing them, and for that reason can be uniquely useful for investigating cemeteries.  However, it's best to remember that the better the preliminary research, the better the GPR data.  Cemetery stewards are wise to first conduct exhaustive research, and use that to guide any investigation using this technology.

16th Century St. Augustine: Top 10 To Do Before 2015

Public art on Aviles Street.
The city of St. Augustine has issued an open invitation to anyone and everyone to come celebrate the 450th anniversary of the founding of our city.  Many will arrive with expectations of experiencing the sixteenth-century and need direction on where to go.  The energy of the town flows down St. George Street and the monumental Castillo de San Marcos, but none of the structures north of King Street existed in the 1500s.  In fact, there are no standing ruins or relics from the sixteenth-century to be found in modern day St. Augustine.  The following top 10 list is offered up to those wanting to connect with St. Augustine’s intangible past though tangible experiences.  

Sixteenth-Century St. Augustine Top 10 To Do and See:
1.  Before You Visit, Perform a Dutiful Deed
St. Augustine himself said, “Who can map out the various forces at play in one soul? I am a great depth, O Lord. The hairs of my head are easier by far to count than my feelings, the movements of my heart.”  The motives that have brought people to St. Augustine for thousands of years are uncountable, and Menendez along with Spanish settlers bring their own complex reasons.  While some motives may be more obvious—military strategy, service to God, promise of enterprise—some motives are not as obvious.  For example, not many people realize one of the more altruistic reasons Menendez came to Florida was to find his son Juan lost in the New World. 
My dutiful deed--St. Johns River dive to record a shipwreck.
Consider the motivations of Martin Yztueta, a Basque architect who Manucy (1985:52) called “single most important influence affecting building practice, especially in the planning and construction of major structures.”  Yztueta channeled many of the architectural elements of his region back in Spain into structures in St. Augustine.  Many other occupations were taken up by the 400 people living in St. Augustine by 1580, including moonlighting soldiers that brought their own regional influences and vocations to the New World (Lyon 1977):
barber, surgeons, bellow maker, boarding house mistress, carpenters, drummer-crier, fisherman, stock raiser, merchants, notaries, pilot, priest, sawyers, shield maker, blacksmith, cobbler, tavern keeper, pitch maker, match cord maker, charcoal burner, Indian trader.
No one in the sixteenth century arrived to St. Augustine without a sense of purpose.  Challenge yourself to do something out of duty.  Don't just dare yourself to do something reckless, do an act out of purpose.  If public speaking is a challenge, give a talk for a local service group.  Or try something new in the spirit of family or friendship.  Bring this experience with you and let it resonate at the places you visit where people have previously come to perform dutiful deeds.

2.  Start in Jacksonville
DeBry engraving of Fort Caroline.
Menendez didn't land in St. Augustine because of currents, or gold, or any mythical fountain.  He landed in St. Augustine to take out the French for Spain.  Prior to Menedez’s arrival, the French sailed up the St. Johns River on May 1, 1561 and soon settled Fort Caroline.  Just twelve days after founding St. Augustine on September 8, 1565, Menendez men marched up to sack Fort Caroline.  Today one can visit the Fort Caroline replica fort and visitors center managed by the National Park Service.  The exhibits help set the context for  Spanish arrival and is a most appropriate stop before turning your car south on I-95 to your destination: sixteenth-century St. Augustine.   

3.  Run to the Fountain of Youth Archaeological Park
See archaeology in action.
The Fountain of Youth is a St. Augustine institution.  Opened in the 1930s, the park has hosted millions of school groups and families during their landmark fieldtrips.  What most people who visited the park in their youth don’t realize is that the Fountain of Youth is likely the landing site of Pedro Menendez on September 8, 1565.  It may even be the site where men came ashore on September 7, 1565 and fortified an existing Timucuan house, thus creating the first wooden fort of St. Augustine.  Dr. Kathleen Deagan from the University of Florida has conducted archaeological testing at the site for over 30 years and has found evidence for many prehistoric and historic features dating to the mid 1500s.    As the 450th approaches, visitors can see the outlines of underground walls and wells laid out by Dr. Deagan, cheer on volunteer boat builders and they construct a replica chalupa—Spanish boat—on site, or talk with Pedro Menendez interpreter who lives every day of the year in September of 1565.
4.  Pay Respects to Menendez’s Coffin
            Nombre de Dios, owned and managed by the Catholic Diocese, is a religious shrine open to the public.  While the grounds are beautifully landscaped and contain their own inventory of significant archaeological deposits, it is the free museum on site that cannot be missed.  It contains the only known artifact directly attributable to our founder: the coffin of Pedro Menendez.  When Menedez died in 1578 he was initially buried in the wooden casket in Santander, Spain.  In the 1920s Menendez was moved to his hometown of Aviles and the casket given ultimately to the Mission.  Just opposite the coffin is the only place on the planet where you can hear the Timucuan language spoken.  A push button display allows you to hear the Lord’s Prayer read by beloved Florida historian Dr. Michael Gannon.
5.  Drive Down to Matanzas
            In 1565 after Menendez sacked Fort Caroline, the Spanish pursued the French Huguenot survivors south of St. Augustine as far as the Matanzas Inlet.  While the exact locations are unknown, you will be in the vicinity of the 1565 massacre site, burials of approximately 300 Huguenots, and 1569 wooden watchtower.  The demise of the Huguenots is interpreted at the Fort Matanzas visitor center and signs along a hiking trail managed by the National Park Service.  Visitors today can see the coquina block fort that stands on the banks of the Matanzas River built much later in the 1740s and take a free boat ride over to the site.  
6.  Get Lost on Anastasia Island
            On your way back from Matanzas, turn off Anastasia Boulevard and AIA and ponder lost sites.  While the first wooden fort of St. Augustine was located north of town at Fountain of Youth and Nombre de Dios, in 1566 the Spanish moved to the island and built a second then third wooden fort.  The sea claimed the forts and eventually the settlers moved back to the mainland in 1572.  According to the Florida Master Site File, only two sites on the island can be attributed to the sixteenth-century and neither date to the 6 year period the Spanish lived solely on the island.  The two sixteenth-century sites are the coquina quarry located at Anastasia State Park entrance (free and open with interpretive signs) and the privately owned Griffin site further south.  We know settlement continued on the island even after the fort moved to the plaza.  The 1589 Boazio map depicts several structures and activity areas visible to Drake as he approached to sack the city in 1586.  A systematic survey of the island might one day shed light on gaps in the archaeological record.
Google Map of Anastasia Island.

7.  Walk the City Walls of 1572
            One of the great treasures in town is Aviles street, purported to be the oldest platted street in America.  Affixed to the eastern gate post is a wonderful map that shows the old city walls.  Visitors should remember there are no standing structures from the sixteenth-century that have survived, but beneath the ground there is evidence of structural walls, wells, and trash pits.  Some places familiar to residents—Lester’s  Gallery, Trinity Episcopal Church, Ximenez-Fatio House, Palm Row, Francisco Ponce de Leon site, Cathedral Parish School, St. Francis Barracks, the hospital/chapel/cemetery of Soledad, and the Church of Los Remedios are just a few of the sites studied by Dr. Deagan and our city archaeologist that can claim sixteenth-century affiliation.  Within the old walls you can also view the oldest above ground feature in town, the Cofradia coquina Spanish well (ca. 1614).  

8.  Seek Out Our City Archaeologist
            St. Augustine was one the first cities in the United States to pass an archaeological ordinance in 1987.  The ordinance is truly unique for its application to private property within identified archaeological zones and fee schedule.  Not many cities can boast their own archaeologist and Carl Halbirt is out in the field every week preserving St. Augustine’s past through recording sites before they are destroyed.  Many of Carl’s digs are open to the public and he accepts volunteers to the city program through the St. Augustine Archaeology Association, local chapter of the Florida Anthropological Society.
            A visit to Carl often reveals every step of the scientific method in progress.  He forms hypotheses in the field to test out at the sites he visits.  He implements the city’s archaeological ordinance and works with many departments, both city and state.  Many visitors daily can observe Carl as he recovers data from the field (artifacts, things made and used by people) that is then sorted and sometimes analyzed before coming out of the screen.  Carl crafts many interpretations in the field based on the artifacts and features he’s finding and shares them with the volunteers and visitors each day.  All scientists have to publish their finding, and when Carl talks to the public that’s actually one of the best ways to share information about the site.  The only stage of the scientific process not demonstrated on site is curation.  Everything Carl excavates is prepared and placed in permanent storage.  This includes field notes, photographs, artifacts, maps and drawings.  Many of those recording documents are started in the field, but volunteers in the lab help complete the process.  If you can’t find Carl in the field, make a virtual visit by searching his name at The St. Augustine Record that regularly features Carl’s digs or better yet the City Archaeology Program website.   

9.  Visit FPAN
Courtesy of Flagler College Gargoyle.
            The Florida Public Archaeology Network (FPAN) formed in 2005 through an act of state legislature.  The Northeast Regional Center of FPAN opened in 2006 and is hosted by Flagler College.  Center staff are dedicated to providing education and outreach to residents and visitors of northeast Florida, as well as assisting local and state government.  You can visit FPAN at their physical address, 125 Markland Place behind the library on Flagler College campus, or make a virtual visit to their website, blog and Youtube channel.  For St. Augustine’s 450th commemoration the center has focused on providing educational materials of all ages to make more aware of the state’s unique buried past.  Timucuan Technology lesson plans provide context for who and what resources were here before the Spanish arrived, and the Coquina Queries curriculum explores ruins built out of coquina—Florida’s Pet Rock—that tell the history of our state.  Before you visit St. Augustine be sure to download the free “Explore Archaeology Off the Beaten Path” map that leads visitors to archaeological sites open and interpreted for the public.
10.  Raise the 450th Literacy Rate!
Cover of Horwitz's book.
I suggest anyone completely new to the topic of Spanish Colonial history in America begin with Tony Horwitz’s (2008) very readable and entertaining Voyage Long and Strange: Rediscovering the New World.  Those further along in Spanish Colonial literacy consider the reading list below. 

See you in 2015!

For Further Reading
Florida Museum of Natural History

Books and Articles
Deagan, Kathleen
  1985  The Archaeology of Sixteenth Century St. Augustine.  The Florida Anthropologist 38(1-2): 6-33.
  1983  Spanish St. Augustine: The Archaeology of a Colonial Creole Community.  Academic Press, New York.
  1981  Downtown Survey: The Discovery of Sixteenth-Century St. Augustine in an Urban Area.  American Antiquity 46(3):626-634.
Hann, John
1996  A History of the Timucuan Indians and their Missions.  University Press of Florida, Gainesville.
Koch, Joan
  1980  Mortuary Behavior Patterning in Colonial St. Augustine.  MA thesis, Florida State University, Tallahassee.
Lyon, Eugene
  1976  The Enterprise of Florida.  Gainesville: University Press of Florida.
  1977  “St. Augustine 1580: The Living Community.”  El Escribano 14:20-33.
Manucy, Albert
  1985  The Physical Setting of Sixteenth Century St. Augustine.  The Florida Anthropologist 38(1-2):34-53.
1997  Sixteenth Century St. Augustine: The People and their Homes.  University Press of Florida, Gainesville.
Milanich, Jerald T
  1996  The Timucua.  Blackwell Press, New York.

Text: Sarah Miller, FPAN staff
Images: Sarah Miller except where noted

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